We saw how anonymous classes could encapsulate reusable logic and allow us to build, for example, a general purpose counting method. But their syntax still left a lot to be desired! In this lesson we'll improve on that by introducing lambda expressions. Awesome! Let's start.
As a reminder, this is an advanced topic. We're introducing it because you will see lambda expressions in real Java code, including on the project that we start next! We won't test you heavily on it, but a simple lambda expression question may appear on an upcoming quiz.
But let's warm up with a classic practice problem on software testing! This is similar to the problem you'll need to solve for this lesson's homework.
Java is an object-oriented programming language. With the exception of the primitive types, everything in Java is an object, and so Java programs involve manipulating objects.
However, other programming languages introduce different programming styles. One powerful and interesting style of programming is known as functional programming:
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm where programs are constructed by applying and composing functions.
Let's examine the Wikipedia definition together and contrast it with Java's object-oriented style:
One characteristic of true functional programming languages is that functions (or methods) are first-class citizens. They can be stored in variables and passed to and returned from other functions, just like any other kind of data.
Java does not support first-class functions. Only object references and primitive type values can be stored in variables and passed to and returned from functions.
However, it turns out that we can achieve something very similar to first-class functions in Java! It looks like this:
We accomplish this by combining two things we already know—interfaces and anonymous classes—with some new Java syntax. Let's see how, step by step.
But first, let's state our goal.
Our first ingredient is called a functional interface. A functional interface is any old Java interface, but with one restriction: it can only provide one method. We'll see why in a minute.
Other than that, there are no restrictions on what a functional interface looks like. Here's one:
Next, we need a way to create something that implements a functional interface on the fly. But wait—we already know how to do that! It's called an anonymous object:
We are so close now.
Imagine that we want to save into a variable a method that increments an
int by one.
Here's what it looks like given what we already know.
First we need our functional interface, and then an anonymous class to implement it correctly:
But we can do better! Let's see how:
To finish up, let's return to our example from last time that used anonymous classes to count arrays in different ways. We'll reimplement it using lambdas and show how much cleaner and more direct this syntax is.
Need more practice? Head over to the practice page.